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After decades of sailors trying to reach the Indies, with thousands of lives and dozens of vessels lost in shipwrecks and attacks, da Gama landed in Calicut on 20 May Unopposed access to the Indian spice routes boosted the economy of the Portuguese Empire , which was previously based along northern and coastal West Africa.
The main spices at first obtained from Southeast Asia were pepper and cinnamon , but soon included other products, all new to Europe.
Portugal maintained a commercial monopoly of these commodities for several decades. It was not until a century later that other European powers, namely the Dutch Republic and England , followed by France and Denmark , were able to challenge Portugal's monopoly and naval supremacy in the Cape Route.
Da Gama led two of the Portuguese India Armadas , the first and the fourth. The latter was the largest and departed for India four years after his return from the first one.
For his contributions, in da Gama was appointed Governor of India , with the title of Viceroy , and was ennobled as Count of Vidigueira in Vasco da Gama remains a leading figure in the history of exploration.
Numerous homages have been made worldwide to celebrate his explorations and accomplishments. His first trip to India is widely considered a milestone in world history, as it marked the beginning of a sea-based phase of global multiculturalism.
In March thousands of artifacts and nautical remains were recovered from the wreck of the ship Esmeralda , one of da Gama's armada, found off the coast of Oman.
Vasco da Gama was born in or  in the town of Sines , one of the few seaports on the Alentejo coast, southwest Portugal, probably in a house near the church of Nossa Senhora das Salas.
Little is known of da Gama's early life. It has been claimed that he studied under Abraham Zacuto , an astrologer and astronomer, but da Gama's biographer Subrahmanyam thinks this dubious.
John II doted on the Order, and the da Gamas' prospects rose accordingly. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Portuguese expeditions organized by Prince Henry the Navigator had been reaching down the African coastline, principally in search of west African riches notably, gold.
They had greatly extended Portuguese maritime knowledge, but had little profit to show for the effort. Within a few years, Gomes' captains expanded Portuguese knowledge across the Gulf of Guinea , doing business in gold dust, Melegueta pepper , ivory and sub-Saharan slaves.
Upon becoming king in , John II of Portugal set out on many long reforms. To break the monarch's dependence on the feudal nobility, John II needed to build up the royal treasury; he considered royal commerce to be the key to achieving that.
Under John II's watch, the gold and slave trade in west Africa was greatly expanded. He was eager to break into the highly profitable spice trade between Europe and Asia, which was conducted chiefly by land.
At the time, this was virtually monopolized by the Republic of Venice , who operated overland routes via Levantine and Egyptian ports, through the Red Sea across to the spice markets of India.
John II set a new objective for his captains: By the time Vasco da Gama was in his 20s, the king's plans were coming to fruition. The breakthrough came soon after, when John II's captain Bartolomeu Dias returned from rounding the Cape of Good Hope in , having explored as far as the Fish River Rio do Infante in modern-day South Africa and having verified that the unknown coast stretched away to the northeast.
On 8 July Vasco da Gama led a fleet of four ships with a crew of men from Lisbon. The distance traveled in the journey around Africa to India and back was greater than around the equator.
It is not known for certain how many people were in each ship's crew but approximately 55 returned, and two ships were lost.
Two of the vessels were carracks , newly built for the voyage, the others were a caravel and a supply boat.
The expedition set sail from Lisbon on 8 July It followed the route pioneered by earlier explorers along the coast of Africa via Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands.
After reaching the coast of present-day Sierra Leone , da Gama took a course south into the open ocean, crossing the Equator and seeking the South Atlantic westerlies that Bartolomeu Dias had discovered in With Christmas pending, da Gama and his crew gave the coast they were passing the name Natal , which carried the connotation of "birth of Christ" in Portuguese.
Vasco da Gama spent 2 to 29 March in the vicinity of Mozambique Island. Arab -controlled territory on the East African coast was an integral part of the network of trade in the Indian Ocean.
Fearing the local population would be hostile to Christians, da Gama impersonated a Muslim and gained audience with the Sultan of Mozambique.
With the paltry trade goods he had to offer, the explorer was unable to provide a suitable gift to the ruler. Soon the local populace became suspicious of da Gama and his men.
Forced by a hostile crowd to flee Mozambique, da Gama departed the harbor, firing his cannons into the city in retaliation. In the vicinity of modern Kenya , the expedition resorted to piracy , looting Arab merchant ships that were generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannons.
The Portuguese became the first known Europeans to visit the port of Mombasa from 7 to 13 April , but were met with hostility and soon departed.
Vasco da Gama continued north, arriving on 14 April at the friendlier port of Malindi , whose leaders were having a conflict with those of Mombasa.
There the expedition first noted evidence of Indian traders. Da Gama and his crew contracted the services of a pilot who used his knowledge of the monsoon winds to guide the expedition the rest of the way to Calicut , located on the southwest coast of India.
Sources differ over the identity of the pilot, calling him variously a Christian, a Muslim, and a Gujarati. One traditional story describes the pilot as the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid , but other contemporaneous accounts place Majid elsewhere, and he could not have been near the vicinity at the time.
Vasco da Gama left Malindi for India on 24 April The King of Calicut, the Samudiri Zamorin , who was at that time staying in his second capital at Ponnani , returned to Calicut on hearing the news of the foreign fleets's arrival.
The navigator was received with traditional hospitality, including a grand procession of at least 3, armed Nairs , but an interview with the Zamorin failed to produce any concrete results.
When local authorities asked da Gama's fleet, "What brought you hither? While Zamorin's officials wondered at why there was no gold or silver, the Muslim merchants who considered da Gama their rival suggested that the latter was only an ordinary pirate and not a royal ambassador.
Annoyed by this, da Gama carried a few Nairs and sixteen fishermen mukkuva off with him by force. Vasco da Gama left Calicut on 29 August Eager to set sail for home, he ignored the local knowledge of monsoon wind patterns that were still blowing onshore.
The fleet initially inched north along the Indian coast, and then anchored in at Anjediva island for a spell.
They finally struck out for their Indian Ocean crossing on 3 October But with the winter monsoon yet to set in, it was a harrowing journey.
On the outgoing journey, sailing with the summer monsoon wind, da Gama's fleet crossed the Indian Ocean in only 23 days; now, on the return trip, sailing against the wind, it took days.
Da Gama saw land again only on 2 January , passing before the coastal Somali city of Mogadishu , then under the influence of the Ajuran Empire in the Horn of Africa.
The fleet did not make a stop, but passing before Mogadishu, the anonymous diarist of the expedition noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its center and many mosques with cylindrical minarets.
Da Gama's fleet finally arrived in Malindi on 7 January , in a terrible state — approximately half of the crew had died during the crossing, and many of the rest were afflicted with scurvy.
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Bargain tech accessories See more. Its swimmers regularly represent Brazil in international competitions. Vasco da Gama also has a presence in many other sports.
Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
The National Championship games have a maximum capacity of Vasco's biggest rivals are from the same city: Fluminense , Botafogo and Flamengo , with the latter being its biggest rival.
Vasco da Gama is one of the oldest Brazilian clubs and has had several different kits in its history. Vasco da Gama's first kit, used in rowing, was created in , and was completely black, with a left diagonal sash.
Vasco da Gama's first football kit, created in , was completely black, and was easily identified because of the presence of a white tie and a belt.
In , the club's kit was changed. The tie and the belt were removed. However, the kit remained all-black. In the s, the home kit's color was changed again.
The kit became black with a white right diagonal sash. In , the kit's color was changed to white, and a black diagonal sash was introduced. The sash was introduced because the club's manager at the time, the Uruguayan Ondino Viera liked the sash used in his previous club's kit, River Plate , of Argentina , and adopted this pattern in Vasco da Gama's away kit.
So, both kits had a right diagonal sash. In , the kit design was changed again. This kit became very similar to the one.
However, a thin red line was placed around the sash. Vasco has currently three kits. The home shirt's main color is black with a white sash.
The short and the socks are black. The away kit is similar to the home kit, but the main color is white, the sash is black, and the shorts and socks are white.
In —10 the third kit was all white, with a red " cross of the Knights Templar ". In , the away kit changed to black in honor of 's team, which gave up playing for having black players, which were not allowed to play with white players at that time.
This was one of the most important steps in the club's history, the fight against racism and discrimination.
Since July , after breaking the partnership with Champs,  the official jerseys are produced by Penalty.
The eight stars on the badge and flag signify: Vasco's official anthem was composed in , by Joaquim Barros Ferreira da Silva, it was the club's first anthem.
This anthem replaced the previous one. The club's most popular anthem, however, is an unofficial anthem composed by Lamartine Babo in Vasco da Gama is the second most supported football club in Rio de Janeiro, and varies between the third and fifth most supported in Brazil.
Vasco also have a huge support in Distrito Federal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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